Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry


Technology of Rites and Grades

A ∴ and A ∴ S ∴ R ∴ = Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. The qualification Scottish is omitted in England: the abbreviation is therefore A ∴ and A ∴ R ∴.

A ∴ and P ∴ R ∴ = Antient and Primitive Rite.

Accepted.—A Craft Mason is called Free and Accepted. It seems certain that so far back as 1350 the term Master Freemason was used to distinguish a superior class of craftsman, e.g. superior to a Stone-Mason and Rough-Mason. It would seem also to have designated a worker in free-stone. On the other hand, Accepted Masons was the technical description of a body which was connected with the Masons’ Company of London between 1620 and 1682, but was yet distinct therefrom and was called the Acception. As it is on record that persons who were not Operative Masons were received into the Acception, it has been defined as a Fraternity of Speculative Masons, for which there is no evidence.

Accolade.—The specific act which conferred the honour of Knighthood. It is given in Grades of Chivalry like the Knights Beneficent, the Order of the Temple, Knights of Malta and Rose-Croix, but is omitted continually in so-called Philosophical Grades of Knighthood, as in the Antient and Primitive Rite.

Accord.—The meaning is plenary consent.

Acting Grand Master.—Used in 1782 to designate the alternate of the Duke of Sussex, then Grand Master. The present title is Pro Grand Master.

Admission.—Members were admitted into the Masons’ Company of London and accepted in the Acception.

Advancement.—The Craft Mason is initiated, passed and raised into the three primary Degrees of Masonry. He is advanced to the Mark Degree and is exalted, perfected, installed in other Grades and Orders.

Affiliation.—The usual American equivalent for joining. A person who has been initiated in one Lodge may become a joining member of another. Membership in America is restricted to one Lodge, and affiliation must therefore refer to a Mason who has lapsed from his original obedience, and presumably to foreign Brethren who have become resident in the States.

A ∴ F ∴ and A ∴ M ∴ —Ancient Free and Accepted Masons.

Age.—(1) In England a Candidate must be of the full age of twenty-one years, but he may be eighteen in Scotland. (2) There is also Grade Age in certain foreign Degrees. A Candidate is said to be 3, 5 or 7 years and so forward, up to 81.

A ∴ L ∴ G ∴ D ∴ G ∴ A ∴ D ∴ L’U ∴ A la Gloire du Grand Architecte de l’Univers, formerly the inscription at the head of French Masonic documents.

A ∴ L’O ∴ A l’ Orient.—At the East. Recurrent in French Rituals. Books also appeared with such imprints as A l’Orient chez le Silence.

Areopagus.—The word signifies Tribunal and is used in the Grade of Kadosh. It designates also a class of Degrees in the Rite of Memphis and the Antient and Primitive Rite.

A ∴ U ∴ T ∴ O ∴ S ∴ A ∴ G ∴ = Ad universi terrarum orbis Sumtni Architecii gloriam, an inscription at the head of documents of the Scottish Rite.

Badge.—A technical term for the Masonic Apron.

Ballot.—The mode of electing Candidates and also the Master, Treasurer and Tyler of the Lodge.

B ∴ B ∴ = Burning Bush, a symbol in the Scottish Rite.

B ∴ D ∴ W ∴ P ∴ H ∴ G ∴ S ∴ = Beauty, Divinity, Wisdom, Power, Honour, Glory, Strength. This enumeration occurs in old Rituals of the Eighteenth Degree of the Scottish Rite.

Beaucenifer.—The bearer of the Beauséant Banner in the Masonic Order of the Temple.

B ∴ L ∴ R ∴ T ∴ = Brotherly Love, Relief and Truth, the sublime principles of the Order.

Cable Tow.—Most generally, the binding covenant of Masonry, and the length of the cable tow is the reasonable limit of obligation. In a particular sense the length signifies the extent of a Mason’s ability to attend Meetings. The Cable Tow has another meaning in the First Degree.

Calling Off and On.—The Lodge may be called off and again it may be called on, most usually between important points of working. “Are you off or on?” is a question in Scottish Masonry.

Candidate.—The technical description of applicants, whether for initiation or advancement. It obtains in all Rites and Grades. It does not signify that the aspirant is clothed in a white garment, though this is the classical meaning of the word.

Capitular Degrees.—Those which are conferred in America in a Royal Arch Chapter—namely, Mark Master, Past Master, Most Excellent Master and Royal Arch.

Carpet.—The Masonic Carpet corresponds ex hypothesi to the Mosaic Pavement, said to be black and white. There seems no question, however, that the word was once used to designate a tracing-board. So also was floor-cloth. There is the evidence of many continental Rituals.

C ∴ C ∴ = Celestial Canopy in the Scottish Rite.

Centenary.—When a Lodge or Chapter has attained the mature age of one hundred years, its centenary is celebrated at a special festival. A dispensation to use a centenary jewel is granted only when there is full evidence of unbroken continuity.

C ∴ G ∴ = Captain of the Guard, in the Order of the Temple.

Chain of Union.—The formation of a living circle or chain occurs in some High Grades, but is more frequent in France, where it is called la chaine d’union. It is symbolic of the bond of brotherhood.

Chapter.—The Brethren of the Royal Arch, the Rose-Croix and certain other High Grades meet in Chapters and not—as in the Craft—in Lodges. The Grand Chapter is the corresponding denomination in the Arch to the Grand Lodge of the Craft.

Charter.—-The Warrant or Charter is the Licence issued by a given Grand Obedience, in virtue of which, and so only, it is possible for any Lodge, Chapter and so forth to work under its jurisdiction. The Charter must be in evidence at all Meetings.

Chisel.—One of the working tools symbolised in certain Degrees of Masonry.

Clandestine.—A very unsatisfactory term used to designate unauthorised Lodges, etc. The word connotes that which is done in secret against the law, but the characteristic of irregular Masonries is anything but to work in hiddenness.

Collar.—A symbol of dignity and office. The jewels attached to collars are many and so are their colours. The distinguishing colour of the Craft is light blue, but Grand and Provincial Grand Officers wear garter blue.

Commanding.—The regular assemblies of American Knights Templar are held in Commanderies, and there is a Grand Commandery ruling the whole Order.

Companion.—Craft Masons are Brethren, but Members of the Royal Arch are Companions. It is difficult to say how this distinction arose, but it is without a difference.

Compasses.—Perhaps the most spiritual of all the working tools: it is found everywhere in Craft Masonry, and is also in other Degrees.

Conclave.—The Meetings of the Red Cross of Constantine, its concordant Degrees and the Order of the Secret Monitor are held in Conclaves.

Consistory.—The Thirty-First and Thirty-Second Degrees of the Scottish Rite are conferred in a Consistory, which also governs a considerable group of Degrees in the Rite of Mizraim.

Cornucopiae.—The distinguishing jewel of Stewards in Craft Lodges.

Council.—The Meetings of Royal and Select Masters and of some other Masonic bodies are held in Councils. There is also the Council of the Allied Degrees.

Cross.—The chief Masonic crosses are: (1) The Cross of Salem, or Pontifical Cross, worn by the Grand Master of the Temple and Sovereign Grand Commanders of the Scottish Rite. (2) The Patriarchal Cross, used by Eminent Preceptors and members of the Thirty-Third Degree. (3) The Jerusalem Cross, worn by Knights of the Holy Sepulchre. (4) The Maltese Cross, being that of the Knights of Malta. (5) The Cross of St. Andrew, which is that of the Régime Écossais and the Twenty-Ninth Degree of the Scottish Rite. The Christian Grades which are connected especially by their titles with the Sacred Sign of the Cross are (1) The Red Cross of Rome and Constantine—otherwise, Red Cross of Constantine—which is a product of the nineteenth century and is founded on a vision of that Roman Emperor, as commemorated in a well-known legend. (2) The Red Cross of Babylon, otherwise Knights of the Red Cross, Babylonish Pass, Knights of the Sword and Prince Mason, under which title it is treated at length in the text of the present work; but it is not a Christian Grade and has nothing to do with the Cross. (3) The Holy Order of the Cross, which is also described elsewhere, in connection with (4) Knight of the Black Cross, and (5) Knight of the White Cross.

Cube.—It is important in Craft Masonry as the form of the Perfect Ashlar; in the Royal Arch, in the form of the double cube; and in the Order of the Temple, because of the White Stone.

D ∴ C ∴ = Director of Ceremonies.

D ∴ D ∴ G ∴ M ∴ = District Deputy Grand Master.

Deacons.—Two Officers attached to the Master and Wardens of a Lodge in a peculiar manner. The charge of Candidates is in their hands. They come in peace and goodwill, having the Dove as their characteristic emblem.

Depute Master.—A Masonic Office in Scotland—as, for example, in the Royal Order.

Deputy Grand Master.—This Office originated in 1721.

Deputy Master.—If the Grand Master consents to accept the first chair in a private Lodge he acts usually through a Deputy, properly installed.

D ∴ G ∴ M ∴ = Deputy Grand Master, also District Grand Master.

Director of Ceremonies.—An important Office in Lodges and Chapters, usually conferred on a Past Master or Principal. The ceremonial procedure is in his hands, and its perfection depends on his efficiency. Jewel; Crossed Rods, tied by ribbon.

Dispensation.—All power of this kind is vested technically in the Grand Master, who acts through his advisers. Certain powers of dispensation are, however, resident in the Office of Provincial or District Grand Master.

Dormant.—The position of a Lodge which has ceased to meet and make its annual returns, but the Warrant of which has not as yet been revoked or its number struck off the Roll.

Dormer.—A traditional window which gave light to the Holy of Holies; but the true light therein was that of Shekinah.

Due Examination.—This is of two kinds—that of Brethren, on their passing from Grade to Grade; that of visitors who cannot be vouched for as Masons from personal knowledge.

Due Form.—A Lodge is opened “in form” by the Master in the Chair. The Grand Lodge is opened in form by any ordinary Officer of Grand Lodge who is, of course, a Past Master. It is opened in “due form” by the Deputy Grand Master and in “ample form” by the Grand or Pro-Grand Master.

E ∴ A ∴ P ∴ = Entered Apprentice.

E ∴ G ∴ C ∴ = Eminent Grand Commander.

Emergency.—The business of emergency meetings in all Orders of Masonry is restricted to the cause of emergency as expressed on the agenda of the Summons.

Equilateral Triangle.—A Masonic symbol of the Deity and essentially Trinitarian, whether so intended or not.

Exclusion.—It is possible for Lodges and Chapters to exclude members, but they can appeal to Grand Lodge or Supreme Grand Chapter.

Expulsion.—Expulsion is a penalty which can be inflicted only by Grand Lodge, by whom it can be also revoked. The person on whom this sentence falls is ipso facto deprived of membership in the Chapter and High Grades. The prerogatives of private Lodges are confined to exclusion.

F ∴ C ∴ = Fellow Craft.

Fees of Honour.—Sums payable on appointment to office (1) in Grand Lodge, (2) in Provincial Grand Lodge, (3) in certain private Lodges. Certain Orders of High Grade Masonry follow a similar plan.

Field Lodges.—Otherwise Army Lodges, attached to certain regiments, chiefly in days that have passed. They were authorised by the Grand Obedience of that country to which the regiment belonged. There were also Naval or Sea Lodges. Military Lodges in particular are known to have mitigated the miseries and terrors of warfare.

Forfeiture.—When the Warrant of a Lodge is forfeited for any reason by decree of Grand Lodge, it is returnable thereunto. Fortunately things of this kind may be called almost unknown at the present day. If a Lodge ceases to meet, the secretary performs his last duty and gives back the Charter to the source from which it derives.

Forty-seventh Problem.—The traditional discovery of Pythagoras and the jewel of a Past Master.

Freewill and Accord.—No person may be unduly persuaded to become a Mason. It is correct to say that he must not be persuaded at all. An act which involves a change in life and relations must be a free act. The most that can be done is for him who is a Mason to assist one who is not in conceiving a favourable opinion of the institution, outside all personal interest, save only a desire for light and truth.

Furniture.—Emblematically speaking, the essential furniture of a Lodge is the Bible, Square and Compasses, representing the Word of God and the whole duty of man to man and God.

Gavel.—The working tool of the chief Officers in every Lodge, its emblematic significance being explained in the First Degree.

Geomatic.—A term once applied in Scotland to non-Operative Masons, in contradistinction to Domatic or Practical Masons.

Ghiblim or Giblim = Stone-squarers. But see 1 Kings v. 8 and Ezekiel xxvii. 9.

Globes.—The celestial and terrestrial globes, placed on the summits of the Pillars J and B, were held formerly to represent the chapiters. There is no reason to suppose that these were spherical, and if they were, they could not have alluded to the spheres of heaven and earth.

Gloves.—It is customary to wear white gloves in Masonic Lodges, for reasons connected with the Traditional History of the Craft. The same fashion prevails in the Chapter, Mark Lodge and certain High Grades, but it is scarcely for the same reason. The gloves of Templar Masonry are black.

Grand Chapter.—The governing body of the Holy Royal Arch, distinct from Grand Lodge and conferring its own honours, a curious commentary on the affirmation that the Arch as it stands is not a Fourth Degree in Freemasonry. The present Supreme Grand Chapter dates from the period of the Union.

Grand Conclave.—The governing body of the Red Cross of Constantine, Knight of the Holy Sepulchre and Novice and Knight of St. John.

Grand Council.—The governing body of the Allied Degrees. Another Grand Council is in charge of the Royal and Select Masters.

Grand Master.—Under the English Obedience, the Grand Master is nominated at the Quarterly Communication of Grand Lodge in December, elected at that of March and installed, if present, at the Annual Festival.

Grand Office Abbreviations.G ∴ A ∴ = Grand Almoner; G ∴ C ∴ = Grand Chancellor and Grand Chaplain; G ∴ C ∴ G ∴ = Great Captain of Guards; G ∴ C ∴ H ∴ = Grand Captain of the Host; G ∴ Com ∴ = Grand Commander; G ∴ D ∴ C ∴ = Grand Director of Ceremonies; G ∴ D ∴ = Grand Deacon; G ∴ H ∴ P ∴ = Grand High Priest; G ∴ J ∴ W ∴ = Grand Junior Warden; G ∴ K ∴ S ∴ = Grand Keeper of Seals; G ∴ M ∴ = Grand Master; G ∴ M ∴ ∴ = Grand Master of the Veils; G ∴ O∴ = Grand Organist, Grand Overseer and Grand Orator; G ∴ P ∴ = Grand Pursuivant, Grand Patriarch, Grand Prior, Grand Principal; G ∴ P ∴ = Grand Principal Sojourner; G ∴ R ∴ = Grand Registrar, Grand Recorder; G ∴ S ∴ = Grand Secretary, Scribe, Sentinel, Steward, Sojourner; G ∴ S ∴ B ∴ = Grand Sword Bearer and Standard Bearer; G ∴ S ∴ E ∴ = Grand Scribe Ezra; G ∴ S ∴ N∴ = Grand Scribe Nehemiah; G ∴ S ∴ V ∴ = Guardian of the Sacred Vault; G ∴ S ∴ W ∴ = Grand Senior Warden; G ∴ T ∴ = Grand Treasurer and Tyler. There are also the following variants: G ∴ C ∴ = Grand Chapter, Grand Council, Grand Conclave; G ∴ C ∴ H ∴ = Grand Chapter of Heredom; G ∴ Com ∴ = Grand Commandery; G ∴ E ∴ = Grand East, Grand Encampment; G ∴ G ∴ C ∴ = General Grand Chapter; G ∴ L ∴ = Grand Lodge ; G ∴ O ∴ = Grand Orient; G ∴ P ∴ = Great Priory. These abbreviations are now practically in desuetude, more especially in England, but they are of service in the study of old Rituals.

Greater Lights.—The Bible, Square and Compasses.

H ∴ A ∴ B ∴ = Hiram Abiff.

Haggai.—The prophet, born at Babylon, who assisted at the building of the Second Temple. He is represented by the Second Principal of the Royal Arch.

High Twelve.—The hour of noon, connected with the idea of Masonic refreshment, the time being of course symbolical. On a memorable occasion in the Craft Traditional History High Twelve was an Hour of Prayer.

H ∴ K ∴ T ∴ = Hiram, King of Tyre.

Holy Ground.—In the catholic sense wheresoever the work of God is performed, there is holy ground. The Art of Masonry is performed to the Glory of God, for which reason the Lodge is to be accounted Holy Ground.

Holy of Holies.—It stood at the western end of the Temple, being entered from the Holy Place, and this was approached from the Porch. The form of the Holy of Holies was cubical.

H ∴ P ∴ = High Priest.

H ∴ R ∴ A ∴ O ∴ = Holy Royal Arch Chapter.

H ∴ R ∴ D ∴ M ∴ = Heredom.

I ∴ G ∴ = Inner Guard.

I ∴ H ∴ S ∴ V ∴ = In Hoc Signo Vinces.

Immovable Jewels.—The Tracing-Board peculiar to each Craft Degree, the Rough Ashlar and Perfect Ashlar.

Induction.—According to present use, this term is often substituted for installation when a Past Master occupies the Chair for a second or subsequent time.

I ∴ N ∴ R ∴ I ∴ = Jesus Nazarenus Rex Judaeorum. The initials are peculiar to the High Grades. Certain substitute words are offered under non-Christian Obediences, some of which are arbitrary inventions and some fraudulent. The Hermetic variation—Igne Natura Henovatur Integra—is late.

Inner Guard.—The Keeper of the Lodge on the hither side of the portal. His jewel is Crossed Swords.

Installation.—A new Worshipful Master is installed annually in the Chair of each Lodge, the Ceremony taking place in the presence of a Board of Installed Masters. The work is performed by an Installing Master, who should be the previous Master in the Chair. The Ritual of the proceedings has been referred to Desaguliers, but there is no question that it is later—at least in the form now extant. The same custom is followed in all other active Masonic Rites and Grades, the Ceremony peculiar to each being in every case later than the Grade to which it belongs. Grand Masters and Grand Officers are also installed in their several seats of office and so are the corresponding ranks in Provincial and District Grand Lodges. In private Lodges the Master who is newly installed is said to invest his Officers. There is also the investiture of the Candidate who is made a Mason, when he is clothed with the Mason’s Badge.

J ∴ D ∴ = Junior Deacon; J ∴ G ∴ D ∴ = Junior Grand Deacon.

Jewels.—The Jewels attached to the collars of Lodge Officers are mentioned in connection with these. As regards those of Grand Officers: (1) Grand Master: Compasses extended to 45° on the segment of a circle at the points and a gold plate included, on which is an eye irradiated within an irradiated triangle. (2) Pro-Grand Master: the same. (3) Past Grand and Pro-Grand Masters: same, minus plate. (4) Deputy: Compasses and Square united, with five-pointed star in centre. (5) Past Deputy: Compasses and Square only. (6) Senior Grand Warden: Level. (7) Junior: Plumb. (8) Grand Chaplain: Book within a Triangle. (9) Grand Treasurer: Chased Key; ordinary Lodge Treasurer, the same unchased. (10) Grand Registrar: Scroll, with seal appended, (11) President of the Board of General Purposes: Arms, Crest and Supporters of Grand Lodge. (12) Grand Secretary: Cross Pens, with Tie. (13) Grand Deacons: Dove and Olive-Branch. (14) Grand Superintendent of Works: Semicircular Protractor. (15) Grand Director and Assistant Director of Ceremonies: Cross Rods. (16) Grand Sword Bearer: Cross Swords. (17) Grand Organist: A Lyre. (18) Grand Pursuivant: Arms of Grand Lodge, with Rod and Sword crossed. (19) Grand Stewards: A Cornucopiae between Compasses, extended on irradiated gold plate, within circle, bearing the inscription: United Grand Lodge of Antient Free and Accepted Masons of England. (20) Past Grand Stewards: Same in oval form, on crimson enamel, instead of irradiated plate, and smaller. For the Jewels of Provincial and District Grand Masters and Officers, see the Book of Constitutions. Those of the Royal Arch and the High Grades are beyond the scope of this notice.

J ∴ G ∴ W ∴ = Junior Grand Warden; J ∴ W ∴ = Junior Warden.

Joshua.—Son of Josedek, the High Priest, at the building of the Second Temple. He is represented by the Third Principal of the Royal Arch, and in America by the First Principal.

K ∴ K ∴ D ∴ H ∴ = Knights Kadosh. Other abbreviations of Chivalric Grades are: K ∴ E ∴ P ∴ = Knight of the Eagle and Pelican; K ∴ H ∴ S ∴ = Knight of the Holy Sepulchre; K ∴ M ∴ = Knight of Malta; K ∴ R ∴ C ∴ = Knight of the Red Cross, or Knight Rose-Croix; K ∴ T ∴ = Knight Templar.

Lesser Lights.—Certain symbolical lights, situated in the East, South and West of the Lodge. They are in relation to the Master and Wardens: a definite significance is attached to each.

Lodges of Instruction.—These are always attached to some Regular Lodge. There are also Mark Lodges of Instruction, Chapters of Instruction and Preceptories of Improvement. They are important aids to correct working.

Masons’ Marks.—The existence of Masons’ Marks from all times and in nearly all countries has been cited as evidence of an universal Masonic alphabet and—at least in the Middle Ages—of an inner organisation among builders. The statement seems arbitrary, more especially an alphabet connotes some kind of language, of which there is no trace in the present instance. There is, however, a literature of the subject, and it will repay study.

Middle Chamber.—See 1 Kings v. 8.

M ∴ M ∴ = Master Mason.

Mosaic Pavement.—It should be understood that the alleged Mosaic Pavement in the Temple of Solomon belongs to Masonic Legend and has no place in the records of fact. It may follow from St. John xix. 13, that there was such a pavement in the Temple of Herod, but it does not save the tradition.

Movable Jewels.—They are the Square, the Level and the Plumb-Line, because they distinguish the Master and Wardens, and are transmitted to their successors. The classification of Immovable and Movable Jewels differs in America.

M ∴ P ∴ S ∴ = Most Puissant Sovereign; M ∴ W ∴ S ∴ = Most Wise Sovereign: respectively in the Red Cross of Constantine and the Rose-Croix Grade.

Nehemiah.—He was the appointed Governor of Judea and Jerusalem during the building of the Second Temple. For some obscure reason he is represented by the Keeper of the hither side of the portal in the Royal Arch.

Order of Business.—The ceremonial rules of Lodge and Chapter are part of its intimate business and are properly reserved thereto. Their recitation, moreover, would serve no useful purpose in the present place. They are rules dictated by experience. Outside Ceremonies, the rules of order are generally those which govern the conduct of affairs at all public meetings, and their enumeration would be idle.

Ornaments.—The Blazing Star, Indented Tassel and Mosaic Pavement are sometimes termed the Ornaments of the Lodge. The distinction appears arbitrary and has long since passed into desuetude. Moreover the Blazing Star is no longer an imprescriptible emblem in all Lodges.

Ornan the Jebusite, otherwise Araunah and—more correctly—Aman.— See 1 Chronicles xxi. 18-25, being the source of the reference in the Historical Lecture of the Royal Arch.

P ∴ G ∴ M ∴ = Past Grand Master; Pro G ∴ M ∴ = Pro-Grand Master; Prov ∴ G ∴ M ∴ = Provincial Grand Master.

Plumb-Line and Plumb-Rule.—Important working tools in Mark Masonry and the Second Degree. The force of the emblematic reflections on the Plumb-Rule may be said to rank with those of the Square and Compasses.

P ∴ M ∴ = Past Master. P ∴ Z ∴ = Past Zerubbabel.

Preceptor.—In the Order of the Temple the Eminent Preceptor corresponds to the Worshipful Master in a Masonic Lodge. Preceptor is also the usual title of an instructor in a Lodge or Chapter of Instruction. The Meetings of Knights Templar take place in a Preceptory, but the Grand Obedience is termed Great Priory and in Scotland Chapter General.

Principals.—The presiding Officers in Royal Arch Masonry are three in number, representing Zerubbabel, Haggai and Joshua. Their jewels are a crown, an all-seeing eye and an open book, each surrounded by a glory and placed within a triangle.

Pro Grand Master.—This Office originated in 1782 and presupposes that the Grand Master is a Royal Prince: otherwise it would presumably pass into abeyance.

Provincial Grand Lodge.—The shires, counties and district divisions of the United Kingdom have Provincial Grand Lodges governing the private Lodges of each jurisdiction and arising therefrom. They subsist under the obedience of the Grand Lodge, whether of England and Wales, Scotland or Ireland. In England the Provincial Grand Master is appointed by the Grand Master’s patent for life, but he can resign or may be removed. In Scotland he is appointed by commission from the Grand Lodge. On his death or resignation the charge of the Provincial Grand Lodge passes automatically to the Provincial Grand Registrar until a successor is appointed and installed. He appoints his Provincial Grand Officers annually, the Treasurer only excepted, who is elected by the Provincial Grand Lodge.

Quarries.—The symbolism of work in quarries and the procedure connected therewith are not without importance in the Mark Degree. They are designed to insist on the operative character of the ceremonial, but that which they unfold is in reality the spiritual side.

Quarterly Communications.Grand Lodge and Grand Chapter meet four times each year for important Masonic business, and so also the Grand Mark Lodge. The Chapters of Great Priory are held once in six months. The lesser Rites and Orders are content for the most part with an annual assembly—e.g. the Grand Conclave of the Red Cross of Constantine. The Supreme Council of the Scottish Rite convokes no general meetings of members.

Quorum.—A Masonic Law which has passed into a proverb lays down that three rule a Lodge, five form a Lodge and that seven make it perfect. No initiation can take place in the absence of the perfect number, the Candidate himself not being computed therein.

R ∴ A ∴ = Royal Arch. The title of Royal Art, being the Catholic designation of Masonry, is never abbreviated.

Raised.—The Fellow Craft Mason is Raised to the Third Degree. It is the technical title of his advancement and part of the mystery therein.

R ∴ A ∴ M ∴ = Royal Ark Mariner.

R ∴ C ∴ = Rose-Croix. These initials are not used to distinguish the Red Cross of Constantine or that of Babylon.

Recognition.—The Modes of Recognition are those by which Masons pjove and recognise one another. They belong to the Official Secrets.

Red Masonry.—The designation has passed into desuetude, but once served to distinguish between the Royal Arch and other Chapter Degrees and Blue or Symbolical Masonry. Blue and Red Masonry are still heard of in France and America.

Registrar.—The title of an Officer in Grand and Provincial Grand Lodges. Presupposing legal knowledge, it is usually conferred on a barrister or solicitor. The Secretary is termed Registrar in Preceptories of Knights Templar.

Regular.—A regular Lodge is one working under the Warrant of a lawfully constituted Masonic authority. The term appears in the first Book of Constitutions, being put forward as part of the claim made on behalf of the Grand Lodge.

Representatives.—Technically at least, Lodges are represented at Grand Lodge by their Masters and Wardens. It is customary also for Grand Obediences to appoint and receive representatives for the care of interests and to maintain bonds of union. The Grand Lodge of England is thus represented in Scotland and vice versa.

Resignation.—The resignation of a member from his Lodge, Chapter and so forth is absolute from the moment of reception by the secretary and cannot be gainsaid, on the assumption that such member is not in debt to the Lodge. It is impossible for a debtor to resign, except after payment.

Returns.—It is an universal law in all Masonic Orders for returns to be made annually on the part of every Lodge, Chapter, Conclave and Preceptory to the Grand Obedience by which it is warranted. These returns are accompanied by capitation dues, which are part of the revenue on which the Obedience depends.

R ∴ O ∴ S ∴ = Royal Order of Scotland.

Royal Art.—This title was first conferred upon Masonry in Anderson’s Book of Constitutions, by allusion—as it is supposed—to Solomon. At the present day the use is purely symbolical, signifying the art of true and perfect life—the most exalted and royal of arts.

R ∴ S ∴ Y ∴ C ∴ S ∴ = the abbreviated form of Rosy Cross, which is the Second Point of the Royal Order.

S ∴ C ∴ = Supreme Council.

Schismatic Masons.—Those who hold Degrees under illegal or unrecognised obediences. It is obvious that a regular Craft Mason may be schismatic as a High Grade Mason, but he is not in danger of the judgment so far as his Grand Lodge is concerned, unless it recognises the High Grades concerned.

Scribe.—The title of a Secretary in a Royal Arch Chapter.

Secretary.—The nature, duties, importance and privileges of the secretarial office in Lodges belong to Masonic jurisprudence. His jewel is the cross pens.

Serving Brethren.—The general descriptive title of Tylers, janitors, sentinels and outer guards.

S ∴ G ∴ I ∴ G ∴ = Sovereign Grand Inspector General.

Shibboleth.—A Hebrew word, having several meanings, among which are (1) a flood of water and (2) an ear of corn. It cannot mean both at the same time and much less one in juxtaposition to another.

Skirret.—A well-known “working tool,” to which a symbolical meaning is attached in the Master’s Grade.

Sojourners.—The title of certain Officers in the Royal Arch and peculiar to this Degree.

S ∴ P ∴ R ∴ S ∴. = Sublime Prince of the Royal Secret.

Square and Compasses.—The universal emblematic device of Craft Masonry and chief among the working tools. They are the basis also of all Masonic moralisations.

S ∴ S ∴ = Sanctum Sanctorum.

Stewards.—Honorary Officers in the Craft and Arch, but their duties begin outside Lodge and Chapter. They hold the lowest office and rise therefrom. Jewel: Cornucopiae, between extended Compasses.

Supreme Council.—The governing body of the Scottish Rite in each country. The Councils are autonomous and do not invariably recognise each other by official intercommunication.

Suspension.—Suspension and Expulsion of members from Lodges and Chapters are things governed by the Book of Constitutions, and so also are the circumstances under which it is possible for a Grand Obedience to suspend a Chapter or Lodge.

S ∴ W ∴ = Senior Warden.

Tesselated Border.—This is synonymous with the Indented Tassel and la houpe dentelée of French Freemasonry. It is a looped cord which surrounds Tracing Boards and has tassels at the four corners. These are held to represent the cardinal points and also the cardinal virtues, while the cord as a whole signifies that Providence which encompasses and protects our ways. It is further the bond of brotherhood and the mystic tie.

T ∴ G ∴ A ∴ O ∴ T ∴ U ∴ = The Grand Architect of the Universe.

Tracing Board.—In the eighteenth century it was customary for the emblematic designs which call for explanation in the Three Craft Degrees to be drawn with chalk on the floor of the Lodge. They are now painted with much care and elaboration on Tracing Boards. It should be noted, however, that the descriptive term is found in York “fabric rolls” of the fourteenth century, and that on such Tracing Boards the Master of the Work sketched the plans to be followed by his operatives.

Treasurer.—The Keeper of the Masonic purse or chest, and his jewel is therefore a key.

Twenty-four Inch Gauge.—This is the common two-foot rule, and the apprentice hears curious moral reflections thereupon.

Tyler.—The Officer in charge on the further side of the Lodge-door. When he and the Officer on the hither side are on active service the Lodge is tyled. He is called Janitor in the Royal Arch and Guard or Sentinel in some other Degrees.

Valley.—In Latin Freemasonry this word is used fantastically as an equivalent of the East or Orient. Masonic documents are dated from, e.g., the Valley of Naples.

Vault of Steel.—The French voûte d’acier, formed by two lines of brethren with swords uplifted and crossed against each other from the opposite sides. The Officers and persons of distinction pass in procession underneath. It is called the Arch of Steel in the Order of the Temple.

Vexillum Belli.—The modern Order of Knights Templar in England, and some other countries, uses two flags, called respectively Beauséant and Vexillum Belli. The former only is known to have been carried by the original Order.

Vouching.—Testimony on the part of a Brother that a given visitor is known personally to him as a true and regular Mason.

Wages.—The wages of Emblematic Freemasonry are dues of light to those who serve the light.

Wardens.—Prior to the Grand Lodge period it seems probable that each Lodge—whether Operative, non-Operative or of mixed character—had one Warden in England who was in charge of the work, as at Warrington in 1646, when Elias Ashmole was initiated. On the other hand, in early Scottish Lodges the government was by Deacon and Warden, but in 1670 we begin to hear of a Master, as at Kilwinning and Aberdeen Lodges. It is doubtful whether we can trace the existence of a Master and two Wardens prior to 1717, though they appear to have been general in other Guilds from about 1603. Within the historical period of Grand Lodge every Lodge has its Senior and Junior Wardens, respectively in the West and South. The characteristic jewel of the Senior Warden is the Level, while the Plumb-Rule is that of the Junior.

Widow’s Son.—The Master Builder was traditionally a widow’s son and all Master Masons, by virtue of spiritual Kinship, are Sons of the Widow.

Winding Staircase.—The Masonic symbolism and the reflections arising therefrom are based on 1 Kings vi. 8.

W ∴ M ∴ = Worshipful Master.

Worshipful Master.—The head and chief of the Lodge, the source of light, of knowledge and instruction in Masonry. It is he who opens and by his authority the Lodge is also closed. It is he who makes Masons and advances them. For the purposes of the Lodge and its activities, he personifies the Sublime Art of Masonry and is the spokesman thereof. The Master’s Jewel is the Square.